Today, in this post I will explain to you How to install Ubuntu Linux in your machine. Linux is an awesome operating system and a lot of different-different Linux distributions are available out there.
What you will learn in this guide.
Ubuntu operating system is the most popular Linux distro among all the other Linux operating systems. Ubuntu is available in three different variants – Ubuntu Desktop ( most popular ), Ubuntu Server, and Ubuntu Core. Many more Ubuntu variants are there but these three are the most popular Ubuntu distros.
Let’s get started…
- What is the Ubuntu Linux Operating System
- What is Ubuntu Desktop
- What is Ubuntu Server
- What is Ubuntu Core
- How to install Ubuntu Desktop
- How to Install Ubuntu As Your Primary Operating System
- How to Dual Boot Ubuntu And Windows 10
- How to Install Ubuntu in a VirtualBox
- How to install Ubuntu Server
- How to install Ubuntu Core on a Raspberry Pi 2 or 3
What is the Ubuntu Linux Operating System
Ubuntu is a free and open-source Linux distro based on Debian. Ubuntu is the most popular Linux operating system.
It is a fully customizable distribution mostly used by programmers and tech companies in their software and other tech-related stuff.
Ubuntu is sponsored by Canonical and is available with both community and professional support. Believe me, Ubuntu has a very large community, you can get help for anything anytime without any hassle or incurring any cost because of its huge community base.
These are the three most popular Ubuntu distros
- Ubuntu Desktop ( for personal computers )
- Ubuntu Server ( used for hosting services )
- Ubuntu Core ( for IoT devices and robots )
What is Ubuntu Desktop
Ubuntu Desktop is the most popular Linux operating system. It is the most used Linux distro. Ubuntu Desktop is a free and open-source operating system. Ubuntu Desktop uses a fully graphical interface while the other two variants of Ubuntu are based on a text-based user interface.
You can use Ubuntu Desktop like Windows operating system. Ubuntu Desktop is a general-purpose operating system while Ubuntu Server and Ubuntu Core are designed for some specific use only.
You should have a lot of technical knowledge to use Ubuntu Server and Ubuntu Core whereas it doesn’t require that much of technical knowledge to use Ubuntu Desktop as it contains a graphical user interface.
However, if you want to get most out of Ubuntu then you can learn about the terminal commands. There are a lot of awesome tutorials out there to learn from.
Use YouTube if you love video content or you can take a few courses on Udemy or Eduniox or Udacity and many more are there. But trust me you can learn Linux for free, there is a lot of good quality content available on the internet for free.
You can learn a few basic commands on this cheat sheet here.
Ubuntu’s installation process is very easy, you can directly jump to the section of your choice to know the installation process of Ubuntu Desktop.
What is Ubuntu Server
Ubuntu server is a special type of the standard Ubuntu Linux operating system designed for servers. It is a server-based operating system.
It does not have any graphical user interface like Ubuntu desktop and is much different than Ubuntu Desktop.
Ubuntu Server uses a text-based interface where you have to enter text-based commands each and every time you want to operate.
This type of Ubuntu is used to create servers that can host websites, shares files or can create a cloud presence of your machine.
It is very easy to set up a simple home network using Ubuntu Server. You must have technial knowledge of servers and arhitectures to operate Ubuntu Server efficiently but the installation process of Ubuntu Server is very simple and easy. Anyone can install Ubuntu Server without any prior knowledge of Linux. Just follow this simple step-by-step guide to install Ubuntu Server.
You can use this server operating system for
- Hosting Websites
- Email Server
- File and Print Server
- Development Platform
- Cloud Services
- Database Server
Anybody can use Ubuntu Server in their machine as it is a free and open-source Linux operating system with a large community and support. You can learn here “How to install Ubuntu Server”. If you want to set up your own server on your machine then Ubuntu Server might be the choice for you.
What is Ubuntu Core
Ubuntu Core is a specialized variant of Ubuntu Linux operating system specially designed for the IoT devices and large deployments.
Ubuntu Core uses the same libraries, system software, and the same kernel as the standard Ubuntu. This operating system uses rely on the snap packages.
Snaps are read-only and immutable zip files that contain all the files, instructions, dependencies and the applications that communicate with other software.
You can install Ubuntu Core on following platforms
- Raspberry Pi
- Intel NUC
- Samsung Artik
- Amazon Web Services
- Google Cloud Platform
- Microsoft Azure
- Intel Joule
Ubuntu is released with long-term support in every two years. The latest release is Ubuntu 19.04 and the last LTS release was Ubuntu 18.04.3 LTS.
Now, i will tell you the installation process for all the three versions of Ubuntu one by one. You can directly jump to the section of your choice.
How to install Ubuntu Desktop
There are three different ways to install the Ubuntu Linux operating system. You can
- Install Ubuntu as your primary operating system
- Install Ubuntu alongside Windows operating system
- Install Ubuntu in a virtual box
Choose from the above methods as per your requirements
I prefer Ubuntu alongside Windows 10, the reason for this is because you can easily switch to windows whenever you want to use windows operating system as there are a lot of things that you can perform only on windows operating system.
All of these methods have their own pro’s and con’s. Choose the type of installation wisely as per your requirements.
How to Install Ubuntu As Your Primary Operating System
In this method, your machine will run only on the Ubuntu operating system, you can only use this machine for your Linux based work.
Choose this method if you want to use only Ubuntu operating system in your machine or if all your work is based on a Linux distribution.
Following are the important points that you should take into consideration before installing Ubuntu Linux operating system
- Ensure your machine should have at least 30GB of storage capacity or 5GB for a minimal installation.
- Your machine is accessible to either a CD or a USB stick.
- You should take a backup of your data, in case anything goes wrong.
- Connect your laptop to a power source.
Install Ubuntu as your primary operating system by following these steps :
Step 2: Create a bootable CD/DVD or a USB stick with Ubuntu iso files in it.
If you don’t know “How to create a bootable CD or USB Stick”, Learn here…
Step 3: After successfully creating a bootable USB or CD/DVD restart your machine and insert the bootable USB or CD/DVD.
Step 4: Enter your device’s boot menu ( usually by pressing F2, F8, F12 or Delete button) and select USB or CD\DVD whichever you’re using.
Step 5: Now, you’ll see a welcome window like below.
Step 6: Select your language from left side pane. Now, you’ll see two options one says “Try Ubuntu” and another one is “Install Ubuntu”
Step 7: Select Install Ubuntu. ( You can select Try Ubuntu, in case you want to try Ubuntu without actually installing it in your machine and thereafter you can install Ubuntu by rebooting your machine ).
Step 8: You’ll be asked to select the keyboard layout if not detected automatically.
Step 9: Select “Normal installation”. If you’re connected to the internet then check both the “Download updates while installing Ubuntu” and “Install third-party software” and click on “Continue”.
If you’re not connected to the internet, Ubuntu installer will ask you to select a wireless network. I highly recommend this step because this will ensure your Ubuntu operating system is up to date.
Step 10. After clicking continue, you’ll be provided with the options as shown below.
Select “Erase disk and install Ubuntu” ( Select this option only if you want to install Ubuntu operating system as your primary operating system).
This will delete your previous operating system and all your files, images, programs and all the other data saved in your machine, I highhly recommend you to make a backup of your data before starting the Ubuntu’s installation process.
Step 11: Click on the “Install Now” button. It will ask you for the confirmation regarding storage space, click “Continue” to proceed with the installation process of Ubuntu Desktop or click “Go Back” if you want to change some details.
Now, select your location ( location will be auto-detected if you are connected to the internet ) and click on “Continue”.
Step 12: Now it will ask you to enter the login credentials as shown below.
Just enter your name and it will automatically suggest you the “Username” and the “Computer name”. You can choose any name for your machine.
Next, enter a strong password. It will tell you, your entered password is strong or not.
Click on “Continue”, after filling all the details.
The installer will now complete the installation process in the background, it will take a couple of minutes to install the Ubuntu operating system on your machine.
You’ll get a pop-up window like this after the installation process is finished.
It will ask you to restart your machine. Click on “Restart Now” button. And remove the CD or USB flash drive.
Now, your system will boot into Ubuntu Linux operating system.
How to Dual Boot Ubuntu And Windows 10
This is the most popular method of installing Ubuntu Linux in your machine. If you install Ubuntu alongside windows then you can use both the Linux and the Windows 10. You’ll get an option to select Windows operating system or Linux operating sytem whenever you boot your machine.
In this method we will install Ubuntu Desktop alongside Windows boot manager.
In simple words, using this you will install two operating systems on your machine.
- You should at least have 30GB of space in your machine
- Power up your machine
- Create a full backup of your data.
- Ubuntu iso burned USB or CD
Let’s get started..
Follow these step to install Ubuntu alongside Windows boot manager.
Step 2: Make a full backup of your data, just in case anything goes wrong. It’s always nice to play on a safer side.
Step 3: Create a bootable USB or CD/DVD with the Ubuntu Desktop iso file that we downloaded above in it.
Read this post to learn “How to create a bootable USB or CD/DVD”.
Step 4: Make a partition where you’ll install the Ubuntu Linux operating system. If you already have a free partition, skip this step or Learn here how to create a partition.
The partition should be different from the one where your windows operating system is installed, mostly it is C drive.
You can install Ubuntu in any of the other partition except C drive or where your windows operating system is installed.
Step 5: Disable fast startup in Windows [ optional ]
You should disable the fast startup option.
Go to control panel > Hardware and Sound > Power Options > System Settings > Choose what the power buttons do and uncheck “Turn on fast startup” option.
Step 6: Disable Securboot in Windows 10
To dual boot Ubuntu with Windows 10 you must disable Windows secure boot feature as secure-boot prevents dual booting Ubuntu with windows.
Step 7: After disabling secure boot, it’s the time to plug in the bootable USB or CD/DVD that I hope you have already created with Ubuntu iso file in it.
Step 8: Restart your machine and enter the boot menu to select your boot device ( usually by pressing F8, F10, F12 or F2 depending on your system specifications ).
Once you select your boot device, you’ll see a grub screen like this
Step 9: Now select “Install Ubuntu”, hit enter and you’ll see a Ubuntu welcome screen where you’ll be asked to select your language.
Step 10: Select Normal Installation. Select “Download updates while installing Ubuntu” if you have working internet access. You can update your machine even after installing Ubuntu.
Select “Install third-party software for graphics and Wi-fi hardware and additional media formats” option, this will install third party drivers for your machine.
Click on the “Continue” button.
Step 11: Now, the installer will ask you to select an installation type. You can choose “Install Ubuntu alongside Windows” if you don’t require custom partition scheme. This option will take care of all the partition steps on its own.
Choose “Something else” option if you want a custom partition layout.
Note: “Erase disk and Install Ubuntu” option should be avoided this time to dual boot Ubuntu with Windows.
Step 12: Follow this step if you choose “Something else” option.
Now, at this point, you have to create partitions for root and home directory.
To create the first partition for root, select free space ( shrinked space from the Windows ) and hit + button below. You’ll see a pop up like this.
Use the following configurations to create the partition
- Size – At least 20000 MB
- Type for the new partition – Primary
- Location for the new partition – Beginning
- Use as – EXT 4 journaling file system
- Mount Point – /
Create the second partition for “Home” directory by using all the available free space and use the following configuration
- Size – All the remaining free space
- Type for the new partition – Primary
- Location for the new partition – Beginning
- Use as – EXT 4 journaling file system
- Mount Point – /home
Step 13: Now, click the “Install Now” button to start the installation process.
A popup window will appear in front of you asking you to create swap space. Click on “Continue”.
Step 14: The installer will now ask you to select your country, it will automatically select the location if your machine is connected to the internet. If not, select your location manually.
Hit “Continue” when you’re done.
Step 15: Enter Login Credentials
Enter your name or whatever the name you want to give your machine just enter it in the “Your name” field and it will automatically suggest you the computer name and the username.
Now, choose a strong password and select “Require my password to log in” to ensure security.
Click the “Continue” button to start the installation.
After the installation process finishes, it will ask you to restart your computer. Just click on “Restart Now” button and remove USB/CD.
Now, the machine will show you grub menu like below where it will give you 10 seconds to choose from Ubuntu or Windows.
Choose the OS you want to use with the help of arrow keys and hit enter.
Voila! You’re done with installing Ubuntu alongside Windows.
In case you want to switch to Windows or Ubuntu, just restart your computer and again it will ask you to choose between the two.
How to Install Ubuntu in a VirtualBox
You can also install Ubuntu Linux operating system in a virtual machine. Installing Ubuntu Linux in a virtual box gives you the freedom to use the Linux operating system within your existing operating system.
- At least 12 GB of free space
- Minimum 4 GB of RAM ( for smooth functioning or better performance )
- Good working internet connection for downloading Ubuntu iso file and other required software.
Follow these steps to install Ubuntu in virtual box
Step 4: Enter name for your virtual machine
Enter whatever you want to name your virtual machine in the “Name”
field. I am entering Ubuntu as my machine’s name.
Step 5: Leave “Machine Folder” field as it is and select “Linux” from the Type drop-down menu that will appear after you click on
The version will be automatically selected after you select Linux as your type but if it isn’t then click on “Version”, a dropdown menu will appear and then select Ubuntu (64-bit).
Step 7: Select an amount of RAM to use
Now it will ask you to allocate the amount of RAM that VirtualBox will use for your Ubuntu Linux operating system.
It will automatically select an ideal amount of RAM on the basis of your machine’s specifications.
You can increase or decrease the amount of RAM but make sure the amount of RAM you select is not in the red area or is too less because this will impact your operating system’s performance.
I highly recommend you to select an amount that is greater than or equivalent to the half of your total RAM size.
Click “Next” after selecting an appropriate amount of RAM for your virtual machine.
Step 8: Now, create a virtual hard drive for your virtual machine. This virtual drive is the space that your virtual machine will use to save data of your files and programs that you will use in your virtual machine.
Select “Create a virtual hard disk” button and then click on the “Create” button.
Select an amount of space to use for your virtual hard drive. You can select any amount of storage space but I highly recommend you to select a storage space greater than 20 GB.
Now it’s the time for the installation of Ubuntu in your VirtualBox.
Step 9: You’ll see an interface like below in your virtual box. Select your virtual machine’s name and hit enter or double click on your virtual machine’s name.
A popup menu will appear on clicking your virtual machine’s name like below.
Step 10: Click on the folder-shaped icon and then select the Ubuntu iso file that you have downloaded in the very first step.
Step 11: Now, select the “Start” button and you’ll see the Ubuntu grub bootloader screen.
Step 12: Select “Install Ubuntu” with the help of arrow keys and hit enter. This will start the installation process for Ubuntu on a VirtualBox.
Step 13: Now you’ll see a welcome screen like this. Select your language from the left side panel and click on the “Continue” button.
Step 14: Select both “Download updates while installing Ubuntu” and “Install third-party software for graphics and Wi-Fi hardware”. This will install all the latest updates and other third-party drivers that are required for the smooth functioning of your machine.
Step 15: Click the “Continue” button and it will ask you to select the installation type.
Step 16: Select “Erase disk and install Ubuntu”. I know this might sound like crazy but don’t worry this will cause no harm to your machine or nothing will be erased.
Now, click on “Install Now” button.
Step 17: A prompt will appear that will ask you for the confirmation that you understand that the virtual machine’s virtual drive will be erased.
Click on “Continue” and it will ask you for your location and time zone.
It will automatically detect your location if your machine is connected to the internet otherwise select your location and time zone manually.
Step 18: Now it will ask you to create your login credentials.
Enter whatever the name you want to give your machine, just enter it into the name field and it will automatically fill up the computer name and the username.
Now, enter a strong password and select “Require my password to log in” to ensure security.
Step 19: Click on “Continue” and it will start the installation process. Now, sit back and relax till the installation completes.
After the installation process is completed, a prompt will appear asking you to restart your machine, just click on the “Restart Now” button and it will restart your virtual machine.
Open your virtual machine and this will boot into Ubuntu operating system. Now, enter your login details that you have created above.
Voila, you’re done with the installing of Ubuntu Desktop in a VirtualBox.
How to install Ubuntu Server
Ubuntu Server does not have any graphical user interface like Ubuntu Desktop, instead, it uses a text-based interface.
Now, I am going to explain to you How to install Ubuntu Server.
Follow these steps carefully to install Ubuntu Server as your primary operating system.
- At least 2 GB of free storage
- Ubuntu Server iso file
- A bootable USB or CD
- Dual-Core processor with a base clock speed of 2 GHz
- Min 30 GB of free hard disk space
- Working Internet for downloading all the required files and updates.
You are ready to install Ubuntu Server after you fulfill all the above requirements
Step 2: Now, create a bootable USB or CD/DVD.
Step 3: After successfully creating a bootable USB or CD/DVD, restart your computer to start the installation process.
Step 4: Enter your device’s boot menu and select your bootable media either USB or CD/DVD that you are using to install Ubuntu Server ( Usually its F8 or F12 that you have to press in the beginning when your computer boots up.
If above keys do not work for you then you can enter your BIOS settings by pressing F2 or Delete key and set your machine’s boot order, give 1st priority to the device you’re using right now )
Step 5: After selecting the boot device, your system will now boot into Ubuntu Server’s Grub menu.
Step 6: Now, the installer will ask you to select your language. You can select your language by using arrow keys and then press Enter key.
Step 7: Select your keyboard layout, in case if it is different from the one that is selected by default.
Step 8: After you select the correct keyboard layout, scroll down to the bottom using the arrow keys and hit enter after selecting the done button.
Step 9: Now you’ll see a screen like this, you have to select “Install Ubuntu Server” using arrow keys and hit enter.
Step 10: After you select Install Ubuntu Server, the installer will now ask you for the network configuration, just skip this step by selecting the “Done” button. Do not change anything on the network configuration page.
Step 11: Now, it will ask you to enter the proxy configuration. If you use any proxy settings for your network, then select the proxy address text field and enter your proxy address.
Just leave this field empty, if you don’t use any proxy settings for your network configuration.
Hit the “Done” button when you’re done with the proxy configuration.
Step 12: If you use any other mirror for Ubuntu then enter its details in the Mirror address field.
If you don’t have any alternative mirror address or you don’t know what this means then enter the default mirror address that it will tell you below the text field. If not, then enter this default mirror address -“http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu”
Then press the “Done” button.
Step 13: Now it will ask you the disk where you want to install Ubuntu Server.
This action will erase all your files and programs or any other data on your hard disk, therefore I highly recommend you to take a backup before installing Ubuntu Server on your machine.
Select “Use an entire disk” option and then press enter now you’ll be asked to select the disk.
Now, it will ask you to confirm your disk settings.
Step 14: Select “Done” and hit enter then you’ll see a screen like this, select the “Continue” button and hit enter.
Step 15: The installer will now ask you for the server information. Fill up all the details like your name, server name, username and choose your password. ( I highly recommend you to choose a strong password for your machine ).
Now confirm your server information ( you can write down this information in case you forgot ) then select the Done button and hit enter.
Step 16: Select snaps if you want to install any with the installation process. Scroll with the arrow keys and hit space button to add snaps to the list.
Now hit the “done” after adding the snaps. This will start the final installation of Ubuntu Server.
Step 17: After a couple of minutes, when the Ubuntu Server’s installation process is finished you’ll see a prompt asking you to restart your computer.
Select the “Reboot Now” button and press enter. Remove USB or CD/DVD from the machine and you’ll see Ubuntu Server booting up in your machine.
Voila! You have successfully installed Ubuntu Server in your machine.
Now, you can use it for hosting your web services or set up a home network without incurring any charges as Ubuntu Server is free to download and use.
How to install Ubuntu Core on a Raspberry Pi 2 or 3
I will tell you now, How to install Ubuntu Core on a Raspberry Pi 2 or 3 board. Ubuntu Core is specifically designed for IoT devices or for the deployments of large containers. It uses the same kernel, libraries, and powers many digital signs, robotics, and gateways.
Ubuntu Core is same as standard Ubuntu but it uses libraries on a much smaller scale and is used for specific work.
- A Raspberry Pi 2 or 3
- A MicroSD Card
- Ubuntu Core iso file
- A monitor with an HDMI interface
- An HDMI Cable
- A USB keyboard
Let’s get started…
Step 1: Create an Ubuntu SSO account.
Ubuntu SSO or Single Sign On account also known as Ubuntu SSO Launchpad Login Service is an open ID-based single sign-on service provided by Canonical that gave its users the access to the Canonical Store, Launchpad, Ubuntu One, and the Ubuntu services.
Ubuntu SSO account brand was rebranded under Ubuntu One brand in June 2013. Ubuntu SSO can also be used on other sites that support OpenID authorization.
Step 2: Now, You have to import the SSH keys to your Ubuntu SSO account
An SSH key is a unique identification file that is used to provide a unique identity to the user and mark them as trusted when they log in. You can use the SSH key without a password.
SSH or Secure Shell is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services over an unsecured network. Secure Shell provides a secure channel over an unsecured network that connects an SSH client application with an SSH server.
If you already have an SSH key located in ~/.ssh and ends in .pub then copy the content and paste it in your Ubuntu SSO account on this page here.
If you don’t have an SSH key then follow these instructions to generate one for you.
Note: You should always generate the SSH keys on the system hosting the SSH server. Don’t copy the SSH keys that are generated on the server not hosting the SSH session, it won’t work.
Follow these commands to generate an SSH key.
- Open a terminal window on the system hosting the SSH server.
- Then, Run this command in the terminal – ssh-keygen –t rsa
- Running ssh-keygen will generate both public and private key. The keys will save automatically in /home/username/.ssh/id_rsa.
Now, copy the contents of the id_rsa.pub located in ~/.ssh folder onto the Ubuntu page here…
You should never delete the ~/.ssh folder as this folder contains your SSH keys that are required to log in.
Step 4: Copy the Ubuntu Core image file that you have downloaded above to the microSD card.
If you don’t know how to flash the image file to the microSD card or USB flash drive then learn “How to create installation media for Ubuntu” here.
Step 5: Now, it’s the time to connect your Raspberry Pi board to the monitor and the keyboard. Insert the microSD card to your board and then power up by plugging in the power adaptor.
Step 6: You’ll see a prompt that says “Press Enter to configure” after your system boots up.
Now press Enter and then select “Start” to begin the configuration wizard.
Configure your network and an administrator account. Follow all the instructions that the installer will ask you to configure your network and enter your Ubuntu SSO account credentials that we already have created on the first step.
At last, you’ll see your Ubuntu SSO account credentials to access your Ubuntu Core machine.
Step 7: Once this process finishes, then you can log in with the SSH keys into Ubuntu Core form a machine on the same network using this command.
ssh <Ubuntu SSO user name>@<device IP address>
Voila! You’re done with installing the Ubuntu Core on your Raspberry Pi 2 or 3.